Kindle Tools & Resources





Do you know what kindle is?
It is a small hand-held electronic device for reading books developed by online retailer Amazon. As you download an iPod or MP3 player with music, you can download books (by wireless technology) on to a Kindle and read these books on it.
Amazon store provides many books to read freely on kindle (in kindle version). But if one of your wanted books is not on sale at amazon store –

What will you do?
Where will you buy books for kindle?
What you can do to make them readable on kindle?
If you want to publish that book for kindle, how will you deal with?

When you meet some problems like these, generally what type of solution come into your head?
What I shall do is nothing but searching on internet to find some good kindle tools

Although some kindle users know about kindle devices and eBooks they don’t know that there are so many kindle tools and resources available on Amazon. That’s why I am writing this article to tell you about these useful tools and resources.

Kindle Publishing Tools

To publish your eBook on kindle you must complete your eBook writing using supported formats such as –
 Word (doc or docx)
 HTML (zip, html, or htm)
 Mobi
 Adobe PDF
Now your concern is to check whether your book is displaying on Kindle well or not?If it is displayed well, then it’s ok.

But if not, then…………….

35                                                                                           what to do ????????

Don’t worry dear 10

The following tools are prepared for you –

KindleGen is Amazon’s officially supported tool for converting files to the Kindle format. So I shall highly recommend you to use KindleGen if you have a good knowledge about HTML, XHTML or EPUB.
This command line tool helps you to work in an automated environment with a variety of source content including HTML, XHTML or EPUB. KindleGen converts the source content to a single file which supports both KF8 and Mobi formats and thus enables publishers to create great-looking books which work on all Kindle devices and apps. But one thing you should keep in mind that files created using third-party software may not work properly on current or future Kindle devices and apps.


System requirements:
• Intel Mac OSX 10.5 or later
• Windows XP, Vista or 7
• Linux 2.6 i386

Kindle previewer
Are you interested to see how your book look across all kindles devices and app? If yes, then you can use Kindle previewer to see the layout of your eBook. This graphical user interface tool Kindle previewer make it sure that the text of your eBook displays properly for any orientation or font size and thus ensures publishers produce and submit the highest quality Kindle books.

kindle previewerystem Requirements:
* Intel Mac OSX 10.7 or later
* Windows 7 or later

Kindle plugin for adobe InDesign®(Beta)
Kindle Plugin for Adobe InDesign® (Beta) is used to convert documents or books created in Adobe InDesign to Kindle Format 8. The ability of this plug-in to convert the InDesign source content into a single file gives a great-look to the eBook and it supports both of KF8 and Mobi formats. So I shall recommend you to use kindle plugin for Adobe InDesign® (Beta) as it is compatible with all Kindle devices and apps. But files made with third-party software may not work correctly on current or future Kindle devices and apps.

kindle plugin

 Kindle Conversion Tools

If you want to read kindle books on multiple kindle readers without limitation or if you want to share books with your friends only DRM removing is enough to meet your need. On the other hand, if you want to read kindle books but don’t own a kindle device or if you want to read non-kindle books (purchased from google, nook, kobo, ibookstore, sony reader store etc) on your kindle device, you must have to do kindle conversion job. Because except for the DRM problem kindle devices support books only with kindle format. But the non-kindle books commonly have epub or pdf formats. That’s why it is necessary to convert epub or pdf to kindle formats.

Ultimate eBook converter

Calibre is a very popular eBook management tool but it is very difficult to remove DRM using Calibre. In that case you can use ultimate eBook converter which is not only very helpful to remove kindle DRM but also strip Adobe Adept and Nook drm limitations as you can see in the following image. Ultimate eBook converter can converts ebooks among kindle, epub and pdf very well.


 Kindle Reading Tools

There are so many reading apps available on amazon. Using these apps you can read eBooks very easily even if you don’t have a kindle device.

Kindle cloud reader

Kindle cloud reader allows you to read your kindle books on web and so you can read your ebook collection from any computer or device.



Kindle for PC and Mac


People who are interested to buy and read kindle books instantly on their computer, no matter they had a kindle reader or not, this app is especially for those people. To download this app follow the following steps:
 Log into your Amazon account and you will see all your purchases.
 Click on the cover and the downloading process will start.
After you finished downloading, the book files will be downloaded and saved in “My kindle content” folder will complete the book files. You can also transfer these books into your Kindle device using a USB cable. Kindle desktop reading app is also known as Kindle syncing tool.
Note: Although you can copy the synced kindle books to any device you cannot open these books on that device, because kindle books are formatted with kindle. In that case, you have to use Kindle conversion tools.

 Kindle Tools DRM

Almost all the books from kindle store are protected with kindle DRM ( Digital Rights Management) and that’s why you cannot read kindle books on non-kindle device such as – iPad, iBooks etc.
Using Kindle DRM removing tool you can remove DRM and can read your preferred kindle eBook on other device.

 Send to Kindle tools

Kindle Feeder
Kindle feeder service is only for Amazon Kindle owners. It helps them to send their favorite feeds to the kindle as an eBook. One can subscribe maximum 12 RSS feeds.
There are also other tools for sending files to your kindle. Such as: Push to Kindle,, Readlists etc.

Kindle Email
When we find an interesting webpage or receive some practical RSS feeds, generally we want to share them with our kindle so that we can read them later. For this purpose we can send our preferred files to kindle which is a traditional way. After completing registration in an amazon account, amazon also sends you an approved kindle email address, which ends with When we find something beneficial we also can send them to this email. Anything sent to this mail will be stored on your kindle library.
Open your “manage kindle page”, hover over the “personal document settings” and click on it. Then you will find all of your Kindle email. Obviously you can apply a new one to send files.
To save files and send them to email you must need some times. The browser extension readability will save this time. What you have to do is just to click on the add-on button in your browser. After that the current page will be sent to your kindle automatically.



Readability is available for Firefox, Google Chrome and Safari.
To know about the functionality of all of these kindle tools and resources at a glance here is a chart:

Chart of Kindle Tools and Their Functions



An Ultimate Guide to Publishing eBook on Amazon’s Kindle Platform


The number of eBook readers is increasing day by day at a rapid motion. If you are an entrepreneur, blogger, writer, or chef and you have an incredible, life-changing idea, ebook publishing may be a better option for you to grow and expand your ideas or business easily. An insightful, compelling eBook can instill valuable wisdom, actions, stories and ideas to your visitors and it is idiosyncratic for this purpose.

7 Steps to Publishing eBook on Amazon’s Kindle Platform

Step 1: Target effective visitors
Without targeting effective visitors, you will find no improvement in the number of subscribers, traffic, or any building of trust.
So without targeting effective visitors, an eBook is useless
In order to find out effective visitors, ask the following questions to yourself:
Who are your effective visitors?
• What do they prefer or like?
• What they want to learn?
• What are you offering them for their time, and can you fulfill their need?
• Are you motivating your visitors with ideas and examples?

Step 2: Creating a platform

To build up a good relationship with your visitors and giving responses to their feedback, you need a platform.Here is a simple but useful guideline to create your platform:

creating platform

Blogs, websites, Twitter etc. may be your platform. Your own platform can benefit you and your eBook in many ways:
• Your readers can find you here, know about you and your writing, give you support, and give feedback on your platform easily.
• You can continue your conversation with the readers.
• A blog is your own portfolio: it contains your work, your information, credibility — almost all of you.
• Your blog has a face and examples of your work; you can meet like-minded individuals through your eBook and make a network with them.
• Guest posting for other blogs lets more visibility to your eBook or your blog. From there, you can find new readers interested in your writing.
Twitter ( twitter logo)  is a great platform for both your eBook and yourself:
• Your readers can follow you on Twitter and you can give response to their feedback.
• You can find people having similar passions and interests.
• Hashtags (#) are very helpful to brand your eBooks. When your fans click on hashtag, they will see other people giving feedback about your eBook, and that may spark their interest.
• You can promote your eBook by sending relevant and valuable tweets.
Your writing category or type does not matter, your visitors need a place to find you and know about you and your writing. If you do not have your own platform you are ultimately shorting yourself.
Try to express your own unique idea; people do not like so much a digital sharecropper.

Step 3: Writing eBook

If you have your own platform and you already have targeted your visitors, it is high time to start writing your eBook.
The easiest way to start writing an eBook is by using Microsoft Word or Pages for Mac. (Kindle suggests you write it in Word because if you want to format this yourself, you must have to save your file to a filtered .html or .htm format, which translates on Kindle very well.)
The following few things you must keep in mind while writing:
• Creating TOC ( Table of Contents)
• Inserting a page break after finishing your chapter to eliminate unnecessary white space. Eliminating unnecessary white space is necessary so that your reader can scroll to the next page instantly.
Have you finished with your TOC?
Give a page break.
Have you finished with your copyright page?
Give a page break.
Do you know how to insert “Page break?”
 Go to “Insert” at the left of the top menu bar.
 You will find “Page Break” option here at no 3 from left.

page break• Avoid headers, footers, or any sexy font as Kindle have standard fonts, and it cannot translate these,
• Bold, italicize, and headings translate are allowed.
• Images should be inserted as .JPGs
After completing writing your eBook, start the formatting process.

Step 4: Necessary Kindle Tools and Resources to download
You have to download a few things to preview and format your eBook. You will see four options:
I. KindleGen
II. Kindle Previewer
III. Kindle Plugin for Adobe InDesign and
IV. Kindle PC/MAC application.
If you don’t have InDesign and you also haven’t downloaded the app already, you need both of KindleGen and Previewer. Using the Previewer, you get to preview your eBook and can ensure that it’s formatted to your desire.

Go up to the top menu of the previewer and click on the option to view your eBook on the actual Kindle App.
Kindle App is available in the following systems:
• Windows PC
• iPhone
• iPad
• Android
• Blackberry
• Windows 7 Phones
• Mac
They have the Kindle Cloud Reader, which enables you to read eBooks on your browser: Google Chrome, safari, and mozilla.

icon chrome safari-icon firefox logo

Step 5: eBook Formatting
You can format your ebooks by yourself, or you can pay someone to do it who has good knowledge about HTML.
Step 6: Ways of uploading eBook
To upload your eBook:
1. Go to the KDP Select route
2. Or don’t

What is KDP Select route?
KDP is the short form of Kindle Direct Publishing.Your eBook is locked in for 90 days when you enroll in this program. Within these 90 days, you have 5 free promotional days to give your eBook out for free. After finishing those 5 free days, your eBook will be back on the market for a price. Within these 90-days, your eBook will be available in the Kindle Owners’ Library.

What is the Kindle Owners’ Library?
This is an exclusive option for Amazon Prime Members. Borrowing eBooks is available on Kindle devices, not Kindle reading apps.
Amazon Prime members can borrow an eBook for free for a total month with no due dates. When someone borrows your eBook, you can earn money.
(Note: Only eBooks enrolled in KDP Select are available to Kindle Owners’ Library.)

How is it calculated?
For instance, if the monthly fund amount is $500,000, the total qualified borrows of all participating KDP titles is 300,000, and if your eBook was borrowed 1,500 times, you can earn 0.5% (1,500/300,000 = 0.5%), or $2,500 for that month.
If you are not enrolled in KDP Select, You can still upload your eBook to Kindle, but your eBook will not be in the Kindle Owners’ Library.

If you are enrolled in KDP Select, let’s get this out of the way: Your eBook cannot be free on Kindle. It will be available for free for 5 days of your choice if you enroll in their KDP Select program, and if you do not enroll, you must have a price tag on it for at least 99 cents.
If you choose to enroll in the KDP Select program, these are the restrictions Amazon places on your eBook:

• You cannot keep your eBook on your blog as a subscription or email newsletter opt-in bonus
• No iBooks are allowed
• No Nook is allowed
• No PDF version with your specific formatting and sexy fonts are allowed
• You cannot distribute it anywhere else for 90 days.

You can, however, opt-out of the KDP Select program before completing 90 days. When you opt-out and the 90 days are over, you can allocate your eBook anywhere else you like. Your eBook will still be up on the Kindle market, but you will not have all the promotional tools.
If you enroll and stay opted-in, your 90 days will renew, and 5 more days of the free promotion will be given.
Step 7: Upload your eBook.
You have made your choice. Now it’s time to upload.
Hit Save & Publish button; it will take about 24 hours to be included in the Kindle store. Within 48-72 hours, you can see the remaining details of publication on the detail page, e.g., product description and related links to the physical edition.
eBook cover
The cover is very important for your eBook. If the cover is gross and does not contain a clear message, the readers’ eyes will scroll right over it, and your chance may be lost forever.
So I shall highly recommend you to hire a designer. As an enthusiastic reader of Kindle eBooks, I’d say 85% of the covers out there are garbage — this is a chance, it’s your time to shine.

Can you withdraw your eBook at any time?
Yes, you can withdraw your eBook at any time, but the important thing you should remember is: Once you are enrolled in KDP Select, that “exclusive” rule still applies for 90 days — so even if you withdraw, you will not be able to publish your eBook on another platform.

How to get royalties?
As the publisher price is determined by you. KDP offers you two royalty options: 70% and 35%. If you are interested in receiving 70% royalties for your eBook, you must fulfill the following criteria:

• Your eBook price must be between $2.99 and $9.99.
• This list price must be at least 20 percent below the lowest physical list price for the physical book.

ISBN number
An ISBN number is not compulsory to publish your eBook through Kindle Direct Publishing; you will receive a 10-digit Amazon Standard Identification Number, and this is a unique number to your eBook, which will be found on Kindle Amazon. But if you have an ISBN number, you can enter it into the publishing process.

Now, if you have defined your target audience and if you have an idea of how to market it, write the eBook, format it, and then upload that book. But just because your eBook is up, don’t think that your journey is ended up; no, dear – it has just been started up. Always try to be updated and let me know about your experience and questions regarding publishing your eBook on Amazon’s Kindle platform.


Basic parts of a desktop computer


If you use a desktop computer, you might already know that there isn’t any single part called the “computer. A computer is a combination of many components that work together. Basically, a computer must have two parts-
• Hardware and
• Software
The physical parts, which you can see and touch, are collectively called hardware. On the other hand, Software is a set of instructions which gives command the hardware to finish a task.
Here we will tell about the fundamental or basic hardware components of a desktop computer:
Computer case, monitor, keyboard, mouse, power cord are the basic parts of a desktop computer.
Basic parts of a desktop computer

Computer case: A computer case also known as a “computer chassis”, “tower”, “system unit”, “base unit” or simply “case” is the enclosure that houses mother board, central processing unit (CPU), power supply and many more. Computer case is made of metal, plastic or steel (often SECC — Steel, electrogalvanized, cold-rolled, coil) or aluminum. Other materials such as glass, wood and even Lego blocks have appeared in home-built cases.
Computer case has different shapes and size. A desktop case lies flat on a desk and the monitor is kept on it. A tower case is tall and is kept next to the monitor or on the floor. The front of the case usually has an on/off switch and one or more optical drives. But today, most of the personal computers include tower cases rather than desktop cases; however, some computers are being made with all of the internal components built into the monitor, which completely eliminates the tower.
Monitor: A monitor or a display is an electronic visual display for computers. It displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. The monitor works with a video card which is located inside the computer case, to display images and text on the screen. It consists of the display device, circuitry and an enclosure. The portion of the monitor that displays the information is called the screen. Like a television screen, a computer screen can show still or moving pictures.
In modern monitors, thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel is used as display device, while older monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT). Most monitors have control buttons that let you to change your monitor’s display settings, and some monitors also have built-in speakers.
Power cord: The power cord provides the connection between the power outlet and the power supply unit in the computer casing. You have to plug in the power cord to power on your computer. To protect your computer from voltage spikes, you can plug the power cord into a surge protector such as uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which provides temporary power if there is a blackout.
Keyboard: Keyboard is a type-writer style device. A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys. There are different types of keyboards, e.g wired, wireless, ergonomic, and multimedia. Although there may be differences in the location of some keys or features, keyboards are very similar and let you to accomplish basically the same tasks.
Specific names and functions of different keys of the keyboard are written below:

Functions of different keys in keyboard

Escape (Esc) key: The Escape (often abbreviated as Esc) key allows you to stop a function or action. As most computer users no longer are concerned with the details of controlling their computer’s peripherals, the task for which the escape sequences were originally designed, the escape key was appropriated by application programmers, most often to “escape” or back out of a mistaken command. For example, if a web page is taking a long time to load, you can press the Escape key to stop loading it.
On machines running Microsoft Windows, prior to the implementation of the Windows key on keyboards, the typical practice for invoking the “start” button was to hold down the control key and press escape. This process still works in Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7 and 8.
Function keys: The keys labeled F1 through F12 are commonly known as function keys. . Depending on the installed operating system, the function keys may have a variety of different uses or no uses at all. . A program is capable using each of the function keys and combining the function keys with the ALT or CTRL key, for example, Microsoft Windows users can press ALT + F4 to close the currently active program .

Common functions of the functions keys

• It is used as a help key. almost every program opens a help screen when this key is pressed.
• It is used to enter into CMOS Setup.
• Windows Key + F1 would open the Microsoft Windows help and support center.
• It is used to renames highlighted icon, file, or folder in all versions of Windows.
• In Microsoft Word, when Alt + Ctrl + F2 is pressed, then a document window is opened.
• In Microsoft word, when Ctrl + F2 is pressed, it opens the print preview window.
• It can open a search feature for many programs including Microsoft Windows.
• In MS-DOS or Windows command line F3 allows to repeat the last command.
• Shift + F3 change the text in Microsoft Word from upper to lower case or a capital letter at the beginning of every word.
• Windows Key + F3 opens the Advanced find window in Microsoft Outlook.
• Open Mission Control on an Apple computer running Mac OS X.
• It opens the address bar in Windows Explorer and Internet Explorer.
• It repeats the last act done (Word 2000+)
• When Alt + F4 pressed, then currently active Microsoft Windows is closed.
• When Ctrl + F4 pressed, the open window within the current active window in Microsoft Windows is closed.
• In all modern Internet browsers refresh or reload the page or document window by pressing F5.
• It opens the find, replace, and go to window in Microsoft Word.
• It moves the cursor to the Address bar in Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox and most other Internet browsers.
• Ctrl + Shift + F6 opens to another open Microsoft Word document.
• It is usually used for checking spell and grammar of a document in Microsoft programs e.g Microsoft Word, Outlook, etc.
• Shift + F7 runs a Thesaurus check on the highlighted word.

• This function key is used to enter the Windows startup menu.
• It is commonly used to access Windows Safe Mode.
• It is used to refresh documents in Microsoft Word
• It is used to send and receive e-mail in Microsoft Outlook.
• F9 opens the measurements toolbar in Quark 5.
• Pressing the Fn key and F9 at the same time opens Mission Control on an Apple computer running Mac OS X.
• In Microsoft Windows,F10 is used to activate the menu bar of an open application.
• Shift + F10 is the same as right-clicking on a highlighted icon, file, or Internet link.
• This function key is used to access the hidden recovery partition on HP and Sony computers.
• Like F1 key, it is also used to enter into CMOS Setup.
• In all modern Internet browsers, by pressing F11 full screen mode is activated.
• It allows to access the hidden recovery partition on eMachines, Gateway, and Lenovo computers.
• It opens the “Save as” window in Microsoft Word.
• Ctrl + F12 is pressed to open a document In Word.
• Shift + F12 is pressed to save the Microsoft Word document (like Ctrl + S).
• Ctrl + Shift + F12 is pressed to print a document in Microsoft Word.
• F12 is also used to preview a page in Microsoft Expression Web
• By pressing F12 Firebug is opened.
• With an Apple running Mac OS 10.4 or later F12 shows or hides the Dashboard.
Print Screen, Scroll Lock, & Pause/Break keys:
These 3 keys are on the upper right corner of the key boards.
Print screen key: Print screen key allow you to take a screenshot and you can save or edit edit it by using graphics program.
scroll lock key: Screen lock key is intended to temporarily stop the scrolling of text or halt the operation of a program, e.g- Microsoft Excel is a software program that uses this key. If scroll lock is enabled on the keyboard when you press any of the arrow keys the screen will move in that direction but the selected cell will not change.
pause key: Pause key allows users temporarily to halt the actions of the program being run or the scrolling of text. For example, the pause key is commonly used momentarily to stop a computer game while the user steps away.
But Scroll Lock and Pause/Break keys are rarely used today, so some keyboards don’t have them.
Backspace key: The Backspace key is used to erase the character to the left of the cursor

Tab key : Tabulator key or tabular key is commonly abbreviated as tab key which is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.
Alphanumeric Keys: Alphanumeric keys contain numerals 0 through 9 and letters A through Z. These keys allow you to enter values and characters into a program.
Cursor Control Keys: Cursor control keys usually include Insert key, Delete key, Home and End key, page up and page down key
Insert key: Insert key switches between insert mode and overtype mode.
Delete key: It deletes the character to the right of the cursor.
Home and End key: These keys move the cursor to the beginning or end of the current line.
Page Up and Page Down key: These keys scroll a document or webpage up or down.
Enter key: In word processing program, enter key is used to start a new line. Another function of enter key is carrying out command.
Ctrl, Alt, and Shift: The Control (Ctrl), Alternate (Alt), and Shift keys work in combination with other keys. Typically, you hold down Ctrl, Alt, or Shift and then type another key to do a specific task. For example, in many programs, typing Ctrl+S will save a file. Keyboards that are designed for Macs have a Command key which is often used instead of the Control key.
Arrow Keys: The arrow keys are used for scrolling a document, moving the cursor or controlling a game.
Numeric Keypad: The numeric keypad resembles a calculator keypad. Many people find that it is easier to type numbers using this keypad. On some keyboards, these keys double as arrow keys
Mouse: Mouse is a pointing device. It is used to point objects on the screen, click on them and move them. There are two types of mice –
• Optical mouse and
• Mechanical mouse
An electrical eye is used to detect movement in an optical mouse. Optical mouse is easier to clean. On the other hand, in a mechanical mouse, there are a primary and a secondary button with a rolling ball to. Mechanical mouse is cheaper than the optical mouse but it is easier to clean the optical mouse than the mechanical mouse. Typically, a mouse connects to the computer using a USB or PS/2 connection. However, you can also buy a wireless mouse.

Basic knowledge about computers


Computer is a programming based electronic device which is capable of  receiving, retrieving and processing data  in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with the given program to produce a result in the form of information or signals. We use a computer to type documents, send email, browse the Web, handle spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations, games and so on.

Basically, computers consist of two  parts:

  • Hardware and
  • Software

Hardware: Hardware is that part of  computer which has a physicalstructure, such as the computer monitor, mouse or keyboard.

Software: Software is a set of instructions which gives command  the hardware. Actually, what guides the hardware and tells it how to accomplish each task is termed as software, such as web browsers, games, and word processors.

Basic knowledge about computers

Operating System

Operating system (sometimes abbreviated as os) is a software type product of system, equipment or computerized equipment, which deals with management and coordination of its activities. The computerized system may be a computer, a workstation, a server, a PC, a notebook, a smart-phone, a road navigation device or another system with “intelligence” of its own. Without OS, a computer or a computerized device is useless.

5 main functions of OS:

OS works as an interface between hardware and software. The 5 major functions that OS performs are following:

1. Enabling startup application programs. Thus, the operating system must have:

– A text editor

– A translator

– An editor of links

2. The allocation of resources needed to execute programs is done by identifying: the programs that are running, the need for memory, peripheral devices and data protection requirements.

3. Facilities for data compression, sorting, mixing, cataloging and maintenance of libraries, through utility programs available.

4. Plan implementation works according to certain criteria, for efficient use of central processing unit.

5. Assisting implementation of programs through computer-user communication system.

Examples: BS2000, BS3000, DOS, PC-DOS, MS-DOS, LINUX, SOLARIS, MAC OS, UNIX, Microsoft Windows e.t.c.


An application (sometimes abbreviated as app) is a software type product which is essential to run specific tasks. There are many types of app. Apps for desktop or laptop computers are sometimes called desktop apps and those for mobile devices are called mobile apps. Here we will discuss about the desktop apps.

Category of desktop apps

There are so many desktop apps which are categorized into different groups. Some are full-featured, such as Microsoft Word, while others may only do one or two things such as gadgets. Followings are few types of applications you might use:

Word processors: A word processor is a computer software application that is directed by the user, allows you to write a letter, design a flyer, and create many other kinds of documents. The most well-known word processor is Microsoft Word.

Web browsers: Web browser or browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. It is used to access the Web. There are many types of web browser such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, GoogleChrome, and Safari.

Personal finance: Personal finance software, such as Quicken, helps you to handle your own income and expenses, managing an entire household, or running a small business and so on. There are so many financial apps on the market, most of them are free. These apps give you plenty of options for learning how to be more responsible with your personal finance. Most personal finance programs can automatically download information from your bank so you don’t have to manually add your transaction.

Media players: A media player is a computerized program which is essential to listen to songsor watch movies. There are many types of media players such as  Windows MediaPlayer ,VLC media player, KM player, iTunes and so on.

Gadgets: Gadgets are sometimes called widgets. Gadgets are simple applications you can place on your desktop. There are many different types of gadgets, including calendars, calculators, maps, CPU Meter, currency, weather, picture puzzle, weather, windows media and news headlines. Moreover you can download gadgets from internet.


Process of installing desktop apps


In order to work, apps are needed to be installed on your computer. Typically, installation is as simple as inserting the installation disc and following the instructions on the screen. You can download your necessary software from the Internet. After it is finished downloading, follow the instructions on the screen to install it. Many applications include a readme file (for example, readme.txt), which includes installation instructions and other information.

Precaution: When downloading software, scan it with an antivirus program as it can contain viruses or othermalware.


You may have heard the terms cloud, cloud computing, or cloud storage. But do you know what cloud is. Cloud meansInternet—more specifically, cloud means the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network  (typically the Internet) When something is in the cloud, it means it’s stored on servers on the Internet instead of on your computer. It lets you access your calendar, email, files, and more from any computer with an Internet connection.

Here are some examples of cloud storage:

Dropbox: Dropbox is a cloud storage service. It allows you to easily store and share files with other people, and it also allows you to access your files from a mobile device as well.

Evernote: Evernote allows you to take photos, clip web-pages, type notes and organize all of them from your computer or mobile device.

Web apps

Web apps (sometimes known as cloud apps) run through the cloud and it does not need to be installed. Many of us use web apps but do not know which apps are web apps. Below I will give some examples of web apps-

Facebook: Facebook is a very well-known and most widely used web app.  Facebook allows you to create an online profile and connect with your friends. There are games and other web apps that you can add to your facebook profile .

Online e-mail services: Online e-mail services like gmail and yahoo are cloud apps. After signing up for an online email service, you can use it immediately and no installation is required for this purpose. Your e-mails are stored in clouds instead of your computer.

Google Docs: Google Docs is an office suite which runs within your browser. You can use it to create documents, spreadsheets, presentations e.t.c. Your documents are stored in the cloud instead of your computer which makes it easy to share them with other people.

Take care of internal Computer Hardware


Take care of internal Computer Hardware


Process of Take care of internal computer Hardware components-

  1. Motherboard
  2. Random Access Memory (RAM)
  3. Battery
  4. Power supply unit (PSU)
  5. Laptop power cord

Take Care Process of Internal Hardware Components

  1. Motherboard

Step 1: Turn off your computer and disconnect all the components connected to the CPU and other electrical connections.

Step 2:Remove the motherboard from the computer case and then isolate the video card, fan and memory cards. Then spray the motherboard using an air duster (i.e. Compressed air can) and thus all the dust and debris will be removed from the motherboard.

Step 3: Using painting brush or a brush with soft bristles with distilled water clean those areas of the motherboard where the air compressor could not clean. You can also use alcohol instead of water.


Caution: Use only distilled water because if you use simple water, then minerals present in it can damage the motherboard. While cleaning with brush or lint-free cloth, scrub very softly otherwise your motherboard can damage.

Step 4: Now it is time to dry your motherboard. You can use less heat to dry your motherboard which will remove the alcohol and water particles. But this process is not safe. It is better to leave the motherboard overnight to confirm that it is completely dry.

Step 5: After completing the cleaning and drying process, bring together all the components and reset the motherboard into the computer. Then restart the computer to check if the motherboard is running properly.

Important note: Actually cleaning of motherboard also depends on your working environment. It is better to clean the motherboard every year. While cleaning a motherboard just take a look at the components of motherboard also. If any dirt presents there, then clean them with a piece of cloth. It is also very important to take maximum care while cleaning a motherboard because if you rub hardly or spray with more water, then there is a possibility of damage.


  1. Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM is one kind of temporary computer data storage, which deals with temporary data requests, such as viewing a file or keeping windows open on a desktop. To take care of RAM you can follow the following steps:

Step 1: Unplug the power cord from the plug and remove the RAM (DDR / SDR) from your PC.

Step 2: Prepare paper and brush removal.

Step 3: Wipe bank RAM / were attached RAM (memory) your brush, for RAM illegible or partly illegible, prepare a pencil eraser.

Step 4: Rub the copper color that is used to attach the motherboard to absolutely no dirt or no trace of rust. After full completion of the RAM stick back to your PC and then turn on your PC.


Caution: RAM is a very sensitive component of a computer. So, deal with it very carefully.


  1. Battery

Battery is an important component of the laptop as battery contains charge which allows us to use it everywhere. Today, most of the laptop battery is made of lithium-ion. So, there is no danger if you over-charge your battery but still it can put a detrimental effect. So, it is better to unplug your laptop when you do not use it. The lifespan of your battery depends on how the batteries are charged and the temperatures to which they are exposed.

Although many people think that low temperature is harmful for a battery, but for lithium-ion battery true fact is that high temperature is deteriorating. To increase the lifespan of your battery, follow the following tips:

Step 1: Don’t place it on thermal insulating materials such as cushions or on your lap.

Step 2: Do not charge the battery while working. Because when you Charge the battery, your laptop’s temperature increases. When you work with the laptop CPU, the graphics card and the hard disk also heat up your laptop and consequently, the temperature of your battery increases. Many users use software that helps to disable charging. While working on AC current you can remove the battery.

Step 3: Make sure the laptop’s ventilation can always work properly. Do not place objects before the ventilation systems when it is opened so that the ventilation system can work properly.

Step 4: Keeping the laptop in its case, don’t run or charge the laptop

Step 5: Don’t keep the laptop under the sun in summer.


  1. Power Supply Unit (PSU)

Step 1: Disconnecting your PC from the plug, remove the side and lying the chassis on its side with the motherboard closest to your desk or bench.

Take care of internal Computer Hardware

Step 2: Use air duster to clean the dust inside the PSU.

Important note: Maintaining neat and clean working environment; regularly cleaning desk, using an anti-static duster on your PC, monitor and peripherals are helpful for increasing the lifespan of your PSU.

  1. Laptop Power Cord

Step 1: Do not wrap/wind the cord very tightly around the adapter. Always wrap the cord loosely, making a neat loop with no tight corners.

Step 2: While travelling, do not keep the adapter on the top of your laptop, especially in your laptop case.

Step 3: Keep the adapter in a neat and clean, dust and moisture free place.

Function Computer Components


Function Computer Components

The computer is an inevitable device of our everyday life. Most of us how to complete our work or meet our needs using a computer, but do not know how our computer work. But to complete our work smoothly using this device and to increase the lifespan of our device, it is important to know how this device works.
But before understanding the working process of computer you must have to be familiar with the components of your computer.

Components of Computer

  1. Computer Case
  2. Motherboard
  3. Power Supply Unit (PSU)
  4. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  5. Random Access Memory (RAM)
  6. Drives
  7. Cooling device
  8. Power Cables

Now we are going to discuss about the basic function of these components:

Basic Function Computer Components


For desktop PCs, the case is a type of box with vents, lights and places for attaching cables and USB devices. Cases are of different sizes and designs. But if you think that computers of larger case are more powerful than the computers of small cases, then you are wrong. Case size does not indicate the power of a computer. Actually, computer manufacturers design or select computer cases on the basis of the motherboard so that the motherboard can fit inside the case properly.
For laptop, case includes keyboard and screen.


The motherboard is the primary circuit board of your PC. All components in the interior and exterior part of your PC (Central Processor and the Memory cards as well as graphics cards, sound cards, video cards, any ports such as Firewire USB 2.0 or and the DVI port which handles the Monitor), is connected with the motherboard in some way.
Motherboards come in different sizes and standards. Actually, motherboards vary by the type of removable components which are designed to handle internally and also the ports that are available for attaching external devices.

Power Supply Unit (PSU)

The Power Supply unit (PSU) is a switch operated unit. It converts mains AC electricity into DC electricity and supply powers all the internal components, except complementary metal oxide semiconductor (because it is powered by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor on the motherboard). PSU has many cooling systems to control the temperature. For example, a fan is placed on the front to make sure that power constantly flows to the PSU and keeps the system cool, so it does not break down.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM is one kind of temporary computer data storage, which deals with temporary data requests, such as keeping windows open on a desktop or just viewing a file. For a speedy PC, a fast CPU and an ample amount of RAM are necessary. Each PC contains the maximum amount of RAM that it can handle (8GB RAM is the biggest and 1 GB is the smallest). Slots on the motherboard indicate the type of RAM the PC requires.


A drive is a data storage device. Based on the type of drive controller technology (such as the older IDE standard and the newer SATA standard), a drive is connected to the motherboard of the computer. A hard drive or solid state drive stores a PC’s operating system and software. Hard drives retain data even if the machine is powered off or cut off unexpectedly because of a power cut. Thus Data can be lost if the hard drive breaks or becomes corrupt

Cooling devices

Overheating creates a bad impact on your PC’s components and circuitry. Although the CPU and other components can handle a certain amount of heat, but excess heat is very harmful for your PC’s components. So, it is very important to control the temperature of your PC.
To control your PC’s temperature, you can use fan- the most common cooler device. You can also use water-cooled system to prevent over-heating. But this is an expensive heat management system.


Without power cables, computer cannot work. All the components mentioned above so far are connected by some combination of power cables. Cables are designed to carry data or power or both. PCs are constructed so that the cables can fold properly within the case and do not block air flow throughout it.


In this article, we only tried to introduce you to the core components of a PC and their functions. But a PC is typically much more than these core components. It has many internal and external parts which have different types of function.

How Take Care Laptop


How Take Care Laptop

The laptop is a portable device which is easy to carry. You can use it even if the power is turned off as its battery contains charge and give you service for 2-3 hours. Many people use a laptop as a desktop replacement and keep it plugged on most of the time. But the laptop is a very sophisticated device and you are more likely to damage a laptop than a desktop. Once it has got damaged it will be harder and expensive to repair.

Some Tips to How Take care laptop

Maintain Battery Temperature

Today’s most laptop batteries are lithium-ion-batteries. Although there is no danger of overcharging these lithium-ion batteries, but there is a detrimental effect of overcharging on your battery. If you use your laptop on AC power, then it is better to remove the battery. On the other hand, if you run your laptop on DC current, then plug off your laptop. Since charging increases your laptop’s temperature and at the same time CPU, graphics card and the hard disk also heat up your laptop. Consequently, your laptop will be overheated, which has a detrimental effect on every component of your device.

Do Not keep or Use Liquids Near to Your Laptop

Sometimes we are tempted to drink tea or coffee while using laptop. But accidentally if this liquid spill on your laptop, then a great damage of your device can happen. Spilling liquid on your device can cause internal damage of micro-electrical components. Short circuits can also happen due to this accident which can corrupt your data or destroy some parts of the laptop permanently. So, it is better to keep your drinks away from your laptop as accidents can happen at any time.

Using Career Case

Use carrier case to carry your laptop from one place to another. For this purpose, you can use a backpack or shoulder bag with a padded section designed especially for a laptop.

Cleaning the Keyboard Properly

Cleaning the keyboard regularly is useful to expand the lifespan of your keyboard. Dust is the enemy of each and every component of your device. Therefore, it is necessary to clean the keyboard, (in-fact not only keyboards but also other components of your laptop) every month. You can use a can of compressed air to clean your keyboard. Before cleaning the keyboard, turn off your laptop’s power.

Precaution: Liquid is harmful for your laptop’s keyboard. So do not soak up your keyboard by spilling liquid on it.

Cleaning the Screen of Your Laptop

Sometimes the screen of our laptop becomes dirty due to dust. That’s why it is needed to clean the laptop screen if you notice that it has become dirty. You can use dry, microfiber cloth (microfiber cloth is found at the optometrist’s office or photo and computer stores) to clean your laptop’s screen. Be gentle while cleaning the screen, but apply slight pressure on obstinate spots.

Alternative way: Mixing distilled water and white vinegar in equal proportions pour the mixture into a spray bottle. Turning off your laptop spray this mixture lightly onto the microfiber cloth, not onto the screen. Wipe the screen as instructed above and then waits for ten minutes before booting up.

Taking proper care of your laptop is very important to expand the lifespan of your laptop. The above mentioned tips are very common tips which must be followed by every laptop user.

Best Tips Solving PC Problems


Best Tips Solving PC Problems

For part 1 Top 10 Tips Solving PC Problems

So here the Best Tips Solving PC Problems

Part 2 includes the following topics:

  • 6.Automatically Turning Off Your Computer
  • 7.Problem While Synching Your Smart Phone with Your PC
  • 8.Instability of wireless network
  • 9.Problem in Printing from the Web
  • 10.Strange Noises from Your Computer


6. Automatically Turning Off Your Computer

You can face this problem due to the following reasons:

  1. Dying power supply
  2. A bad cable connections
  3. efective battery or overheating

Solution:  Check the connections of the cable; Check also that if your computer becomes very hot; check if the fan gets very dirty and needs cleaning; if it is a laptop, check whether your battery has been weakened and needed to be replaced.

7. Problem While Synching Your Smart Phone with Your PC

It is important to sync your smart phone content with your computer regularly to ensure backup of your Smartphone. But sometimes synchronization does not work properly. Depending on the type of your Smartphone and PC problems of synchronization can cause by various reasons. Sometimes it is needed to close all programs during synching or backup.

Solution: Make it sure to download or reject the projected updates which pop up along the way, so synchronization can be done. Search for the icon of synchronization to appear and check if for example the newest photos on your Smartphone have been moved to the PC. Verify the user manual for your device. If necessary, close open applications.

8. Instability of wireless network

Instability of a wireless network can be caused by everything from radio waves which interfere with the signal to the router’s location in the home or outdated network drivers.
Solution: If you think that the problem is caused by your cordless phone or the electric garage door opener or your radio that interferes with the wireless connection, in that case you can change the radio Wi-Fi settings or  move your router. You can also purchase a wireless repeater to extend the signal. And yes, it is also important to make sure that your network driver is always up to date.

9. Problem in Printing from the Web

It’s a very common need for us to print tickets or documents that we ordered or downloaded from the web.  But sometimes we face problems in printing from the web. It may happen if your computer’s pop-up blocker is turned on. Some PDF documents are protected by passwords and therefore they are not printable.
Solution: Allowing temporary pop-ups can be a solution. If you allow temporary pop-ups, you can find genuine programs that can break the code in a protected PDF document, but these are usually only legal to use if you or your workplace have the copyright to the document.

10. Strange Noises from Your Computer

If you notice that your computer suddenly starts to buzz or vibrate, it can be due to a hardware failure. Problems with the electrical components can be a reason of high, whining noise while buzzing noises are often caused by lack of aeration.
Solution:  Clean the filter and fan for dust and check that all air inlets are free. If it is a laptop, you can try to uninstall and reinstall your sound drivers to solve the problem. If it is a desktop, you can replace the sound card.

Top 10 Tips Solving PC Problems


Top 10 Tips Solving PC Problems

This article has been created to give you a better knowledge about the common problems of your PC and the tips for solving these problems. The article is divided into two parts. In the first part, we shall discuss about five problems and in the second part we shall discuss about 5 problems.

Part 1 includes the following topics:

  • Slow Motion of Your Computer
  • Computer Freezing
  • Forgetting to Backup Data
  • Getting Bombarded with Adware and Changing the Home Page
  • Internet Browsing Problem

Best Top 10 Tips Solving PC Problems

1. Slow Motion of Your Computer

Slow motion is one of the most common problems happens to almost every computer. Due to the slow motion of your computer, progress of your work becomes slow. There are so many reasons for slowing down your computer’s speed. But the most common causes are-

  1. Lack of maintenance
  2. Fragmented data
  3. Corrupted registry
  4. Spyware and
  5. Dozens of unnecessary programs or application running at the same time easily slows down the speed of your PC.


Remove the unnecessary programs.

Clean the registry using one of the many free or paid applications which are available for Windows.
Run Disk Defragmenter and
Stop unwanted programs starting with Windows(Silently run those programs) by running MSconfig.

2. Computer Freezing

There are so many reasons for freezing your computer. Here is the most common reasons –

  1. Virus
  2. Hardware malfunctions
  3. Disk defragmentation


Virus, especially spyware is the most common reason behind computer ailment. Viruses can do a lot of harm of your computer. By running in the background without your knowledge, viruses can ruin your files or steal your data and can sap away all of your processing power or available system memory. Consequently, your device becomes crippled.
Solution: Install antivirus software and scan your whole computer regularly.

Hardware malfunctions

Most of the time freezing is caused by hardware malfunctions. Hardware malfunctions “confuse” your device by not allowing it to do the tasks that it’s trying to do. Your computer can also be frozen up while running into a malfunctioning chip within the motherboard; it may not know how to continue. But how you will be confirmed, that hardware malfunction is the reason behind freezing up problem?

At first check the full address of the link that you are clicking on. Does it look apprehensive? Never hand out your passwords or credit card information to anyone; even if it looks like that your bank requires you to verify your account. Actually, hackers use this clever phishing trick to gain access to your money. Confirm that your antivirus and anti-spyware software is updated. If you are confirming that your computer is spyware free, then the problem may be due to outdated hardware drivers.
Solution: At first, make sure that your hardware drivers are up-to-date as your device can stop responding and freeze due to outdated drivers.

Now, if you think the problem is hardware related, you can uninstall any component that you recently installed. You also can remove or unplug unnecessary hardware one piece at a time and then boot your PC to check if the problem goes away. You can also try to solve the problem by Windows Restoring or roll back to a previous restore point.

Disk defragmentation

Disk defragmentation is another cause of your computer’s freezing up problem. If you have not defragmented your hard drive in quite some time, then your computer can freeze. Just like a chaotic desk with papers all over the place, sometimes a computer needs to take time to reorganize the data it belongs so that everything is easier to find out. So, when you defragment your hard drive, it takes all of your knotted data and reorganizes it; consequently it becomes easier for the computer to find out all the data properly.
Solution: As the defragmentation program is located in different places on each Windows operating system, so you can check online for where yours is located.

3. Forgetting to Backup Data

Sometimes we overlook the backup security task. You should remember that your computer’s hard drive is a mechanical and electrical device. Important documents, photos, music libraries and emails are automatically stored on your computer’s hard drive can disappear forever if your hard drive breaks down. Even if you have a warranty from the hard drive manufacturer company, it does not cover your data. It can only replace the hard drive with a new one.
Solution: An external hard drive, server or cloud service can be a solution of this problem. Backup should be an automatic process that operates independently of whether you remember it or not. Online backup solution provides the advantage to access into your data from anywhere in the world. Most online services guarantee 100% security by providing backup to their backup.

4. Getting Bombarded with Adware and Changing the Home Page

While downloading free programs such as Adobe reader, they often offer a new toolbar, but many of us do not notice this. Adobe Corporation offers the Google Chrome internet browser as a part of its download. Whilst Adobe and Google are companies of good reputation, other free downloads may install toolbars or other applications which can include malicious code. Hackers can hack your browser and change all the settings using these malicious codes. Consequently, your homepage for instance, can change to another website which you can’t change back. It may also happen that every time you try to browse internet, annoying pop-up messages with advertisements for products that you’ve never asked for are constantly displayed on screen.

Solution: Before downloading any software or apps, read the conditions thoroughly and pay attention to what you allow. If damage is done, it can be hard to remove the program. The best way is to search the solution of your problem in Google and to work according to their instruction. If you are not so technical, in that case you can take help from a professional PC supporter.

5. Internet Browsing Problem

Internet browsing problem can take place due to different reasons. The most common cause is-

  • Network misconfigurations
  • Error in the router of hardware and software
  • Latency or hidden unwanted problem from your Internet Service Provider
  • Wrong IP address configuration
  • Incorrect connection of your network cables
  • Firewall applications which block http traffic from your PC or temporary timeouts your ISP.

Solution: Make sure that the WiFi is enabled on your computer – laptops often have a switch, button or Function key combination somewhere on your computer or keyboard.

Check that the network icon on your computer is connected. Yellow signal on the network icon indicates that your computer is connected to the internet or if there is a red signal that means your computer is not connected to the internet. If it is connected, contact with your network provider or get hold of someone who has more knowledge on IT.

If WiFi is disabled, check whether the cable is connected properly or if WiFi is not on. If yellow warning is shown, then reboot the router. If this does not work, press Start in Windows XP, Vista or 7, then type “cmd” into the search box and click enter. Then you can see a pop-up black box and then type “ipconfig / release” in this pop-up black box and then type “ipconfig / renew”. If the internet is not working till now, then contact with an ISP.

Working Process of Computer


The content of this article includes the working process of your computer in brief to give you a basic knowledge about the working process of computer.

What Happens When You Press Your Computer’s Power Button?

When you press the power button on your computer, it sends a signal to the Power Supply Unit (PSU). PSU converts the alternating current (AC) into a direct current (DC) and supply the proper amount of voltage and electricity to the computer and its components.

When the computer and its components receive ample power and the PSU reports no errors it sends a signal (using transistors) to the motherboard and the Computer Processor Unit (CPU). While this is happening, the processor will clear any leftover data in the memory registers and give the CPU program counter a F000 hexadecimal number. This hexadecimal number is the location of the first instruction and tells the CPU that it’s ready to process the instructions which are contained in the basic input/output system (BIOS).

Basic Input/output System (BIOS) and The Power-on Self-Test (POST)

To make sure the components in the computer are present and functioning properly the computer looks at the BIOS at first and it begins the power-on self-test (POST) sequence.


If the computer cannot complete any of these tests or task it will encounter an irregular POST.

Do You Know What Does Irregular POST Mean?

An irregular POST is a beep code which is different from the standard one or two beeps.
For instance, an irregular POST could create a combination of different beeps or no beeps at all to indicate the cause of the failure.
But if the computer can pass the initial POST successfully, it will next look at the first 64-bytes of memory which is located in the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip. CMOS is kept alive even when the computer is turned off since CMOS is powered by a replaceable CMOS battery on the motherboard. CMOS contains information (such as, system clock) about all the hardware installed in your computer.
After loading CMOS information, POST will start inspecting and comparing the system settings with what is installed in the computer. If no errors are found while loading CMOS information, then it will start loading the basic device drivers and interrupt handlers for hardware such as the hard drive, floppy drive, keyboard, mouse. These basic drivers permit the CPU to communicate with these hardware devices and permit the computer to continue its booting process.
Then, the POST will check the Real-Time Clock (RTC) and the computer system bus to check both of these are properly working on the computer or not. After the POST has loaded the memory contained on the display adapter, you’ll see a picture on your display.
Next, the BIOS will make sure if it’s currently performing a cold boot or a warm boot (reboot) by looking at the memory address 0000:0472. If the BIOS finds 1234h the BIOS knows that this is a reboot and will skip the remainder of the POST steps.
If 1234h is not found, the BIOS will indicate it as a cold boot and will continue running additional POST steps. Next, it tests Random Access Memory (RAM) which is installed in the computer by writing to each chip.
Finally, the POST will send signals to the computer after that floppy, optical and hard drive to test these drives. If all drives pass the tests successfully, the POST will be completed and then it will instruct the computer to begin the process of loading the operating system.

Booting the Operating System

After completing the POST process, the computer begins booting operation. This process includes what loads the operating system and all of the associated files. Microsoft Windows is the most favorite and commonly used operating system. This section covers the process of loading Microsoft Windows.

The BIOS first hands manage the bootstrap loader. Bootstrap loader looks at the boot sector of the hard drive. Now if your boot sequence in CMOS setup is not set up to look at the hard drive first, and it may look at the boot sector on any inserted floppy disk drive or look optical disc first, before doing this.
In this example, the Microsoft Windows XP, NT Loader (NTLDR) is found on the boot sector and tells the computer where to find the remaining code on the hard drive. After that, Windows loads the file. This file displays the Windows splash screen and loads the Windows registry. After loading the registry, Windows starts to load the low-level programs which make up the operating system into memory. So, many of the initially loaded programs are what permit Windows to communicate with the necessary hardware and other programs running on the computer.
After the registry has finished loading the initial basic hardware devices, it starts to load Plug and Play devices, PCI, and ISA devices. After completing loads of all these devices, Windows then begins to load full support of the hard drive, partitions, any other disk drives and then moves to all other drivers that have been installed.
After completing the above steps successfully another additional required services are loaded and Windows starts.

Communication of Hardware Devices with the Computer

After loading the operating system successfully, hardware of the computer must be able to communicate with the CPU. Hardware communication is completed by using an interrupt request (IRQ).


Each time a hardware device requires the attention of the computer, the interrupt controller sends the request (INTR) to the CPU. So it stops temporarily what it is doing to process the request of the hardware device. Anything that was being done by the CPU is currently put on hold and stored as a memory address in the memory heap and is returned to after the interrupt request is processed successfully.