Basic knowledge about computers

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Computer is a programming based electronic device which is capable of  receiving, retrieving and processing data  in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with the given program to produce a result in the form of information or signals. We use a computer to type documents, send email, browse the Web, handle spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations, games and so on.

Basically, computers consist of two  parts:

  • Hardware and
  • Software

Hardware: Hardware is that part of  computer which has a physicalstructure, such as the computer monitor, mouse or keyboard.

Software: Software is a set of instructions which gives command  the hardware. Actually, what guides the hardware and tells it how to accomplish each task is termed as software, such as web browsers, games, and word processors.

Basic knowledge about computers

Operating System

Operating system (sometimes abbreviated as os) is a software type product of system, equipment or computerized equipment, which deals with management and coordination of its activities. The computerized system may be a computer, a workstation, a server, a PC, a notebook, a smart-phone, a road navigation device or another system with “intelligence” of its own. Without OS, a computer or a computerized device is useless.

5 main functions of OS:

OS works as an interface between hardware and software. The 5 major functions that OS performs are following:

1. Enabling startup application programs. Thus, the operating system must have:

– A text editor

– A translator

– An editor of links

2. The allocation of resources needed to execute programs is done by identifying: the programs that are running, the need for memory, peripheral devices and data protection requirements.

3. Facilities for data compression, sorting, mixing, cataloging and maintenance of libraries, through utility programs available.

4. Plan implementation works according to certain criteria, for efficient use of central processing unit.

5. Assisting implementation of programs through computer-user communication system.

Examples: BS2000, BS3000, DOS, PC-DOS, MS-DOS, LINUX, SOLARIS, MAC OS, UNIX, Microsoft Windows e.t.c.

Application

An application (sometimes abbreviated as app) is a software type product which is essential to run specific tasks. There are many types of app. Apps for desktop or laptop computers are sometimes called desktop apps and those for mobile devices are called mobile apps. Here we will discuss about the desktop apps.

Category of desktop apps

There are so many desktop apps which are categorized into different groups. Some are full-featured, such as Microsoft Word, while others may only do one or two things such as gadgets. Followings are few types of applications you might use:

Word processors: A word processor is a computer software application that is directed by the user, allows you to write a letter, design a flyer, and create many other kinds of documents. The most well-known word processor is Microsoft Word.

Web browsers: Web browser or browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. It is used to access the Web. There are many types of web browser such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, GoogleChrome, and Safari.

Personal finance: Personal finance software, such as Quicken, helps you to handle your own income and expenses, managing an entire household, or running a small business and so on. There are so many financial apps on the market, most of them are free. These apps give you plenty of options for learning how to be more responsible with your personal finance. Most personal finance programs can automatically download information from your bank so you don’t have to manually add your transaction.

Media players: A media player is a computerized program which is essential to listen to songsor watch movies. There are many types of media players such as  Windows MediaPlayer ,VLC media player, KM player, iTunes and so on.

Gadgets: Gadgets are sometimes called widgets. Gadgets are simple applications you can place on your desktop. There are many different types of gadgets, including calendars, calculators, maps, CPU Meter, currency, weather, picture puzzle, weather, windows media and news headlines. Moreover you can download gadgets from internet.

 

Process of installing desktop apps

 

In order to work, apps are needed to be installed on your computer. Typically, installation is as simple as inserting the installation disc and following the instructions on the screen. You can download your necessary software from the Internet. After it is finished downloading, follow the instructions on the screen to install it. Many applications include a readme file (for example, readme.txt), which includes installation instructions and other information.

Precaution: When downloading software, scan it with an antivirus program as it can contain viruses or othermalware.

Cloud

You may have heard the terms cloud, cloud computing, or cloud storage. But do you know what cloud is. Cloud meansInternet—more specifically, cloud means the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network  (typically the Internet) When something is in the cloud, it means it’s stored on servers on the Internet instead of on your computer. It lets you access your calendar, email, files, and more from any computer with an Internet connection.

Here are some examples of cloud storage:

Dropbox: Dropbox is a cloud storage service. It allows you to easily store and share files with other people, and it also allows you to access your files from a mobile device as well.

Evernote: Evernote allows you to take photos, clip web-pages, type notes and organize all of them from your computer or mobile device.

Web apps

Web apps (sometimes known as cloud apps) run through the cloud and it does not need to be installed. Many of us use web apps but do not know which apps are web apps. Below I will give some examples of web apps-

Facebook: Facebook is a very well-known and most widely used web app.  Facebook allows you to create an online profile and connect with your friends. There are games and other web apps that you can add to your facebook profile .

Online e-mail services: Online e-mail services like gmail and yahoo are cloud apps. After signing up for an online email service, you can use it immediately and no installation is required for this purpose. Your e-mails are stored in clouds instead of your computer.

Google Docs: Google Docs is an office suite which runs within your browser. You can use it to create documents, spreadsheets, presentations e.t.c. Your documents are stored in the cloud instead of your computer which makes it easy to share them with other people.

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